Fundació Miró


CHRONOLOGY



María Luisa Lax


1893| Joan Miró is born on April 20th in Barcelona, the eldest son of Miquel Miró i Adzaries, a goldsmith, and Dolores Ferrà i Oromí, the daughter of a cabinet maker from Palma de Mallorca.

1900| He begins primary school and is given drawing classes by teacher Mr Civil. From this year on, he spends summers with his paternal grandparents in Cornudella (Tarragona) and his maternal grandmother in Mallorca.

1906| From 1906 to 1909, he makes sketches in an exercise book while he spends the summer with his paternal and maternal grandparents. Many of these sketches are landscapes made in Cornudella or Mallorca.

1907| At his father's initiative, Miró studies at Barcelona School of Commerce. He also attends classes at La Llotja School of Fine Art, where he studies under Modest Urgell and Josep Pascó.

1908| He paints a landscape, the first oil by Miró to have been conserved.

1910| He works as an unpaid trainee bookkeeper at the cleaning supplies store Dalmau Oliveres in Barcelona. Miró's family buys a farmhouse in Montroig in the province of Tarragona.

1911| Unhappy with his job, he falls ill and then catches typhoid fever. He convalesces at the farmhouse in Montroig. On July 20th, he exhibits a painting for the first time at the "VI Exposición Internacional de Arte" in Barcelona.

1912| He studies at Francesc Galí Art School in Barcelona (1912-1915), where he learns to draw after closing his eyes and touching the model. There he meets Josep Francesc Ràfols, Enric Cristòfol Ricart, Joan Prats and perhaps Llorens Artigas.

1913| He attends drawing classes at Sant Lluc Art Circle until 1918. He draws nudes, dancers, circus artists and street or port scenes.

1914| He shares a studio with Ricart in carrer Arc de Jonqueres in Barcelona. He paints landscapes and a still life.

1915| By June 10th, Miró has been called up to do his military service.

1916| He meets art dealer Josep Dalmau. He continues doing his military service in Barcelona. Miró shares a studio with Ricart in carrer Sant Pere Més Baix, Barcelona. He paints landscapes and still lifes under the influence of Van Gogh, Cézanne, Matisse or the Fauve movement.

1917| In late December he finishes his military service.

1918| He is involved in the foundation of the Courbet Group, together with Ràfols, Ricart, Rafael Sala, and Francesc Domingo. Later, Llorens Artigas joins it. Miró's first solo exhibition takes place at Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona (February 16th-March 3rd). In the summer, in Montroig, he paints "detailist" landscapes.

1919| He takes part in exhibitions with the Courbet Group in Barcelona. In summer, he stays in Montroig and plans his trip to Paris. By the end of the year, the Courbet Group has almost split up. He paints landscapes, a nude, a portrait and self-portrait.

1920| In late February, he makes his first trip to Paris. On March 2nd he visits Picasso. In Paris, he visits museums and exhibitions and attends classes. In June he returns to Barcelona and spends the summer in Montroig, where he paints still lifes influenced by Cubism and Art Nouveau. In the autumn, he exhibits work at the Salon d'Automne in Paris and at the "Exposició d'art francès d'avantguarda" at Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona.

1921| In February he returns to Paris. He paints in a studio in Rue Blomet, where he is a neighbour of André Masson. He almost certainly meets Pierre Reverdy and Tristan Tzara. On April 29th, his first solo exhibition at Galerie La Licorne in Paris opens. During the summer he begins to paint The Farm in Montroig.

1922| In April he is in Paris. He lives and works in the studio in Rue Blomet, where he completes The Farm. He becomes friends with Masson and Roland Tual. From July to December, he works in Montroig.

1923| From March to June he stays at the Hôtel de la Haute-Loire, in Boulevard Raspail, Paris, but he works in the Rue Blomet studio. Through Masson, he meets Michel Leiris and perhaps Antonin Artaud, Desnos and Eluard. During the summer in Montroig, his landscapes start to be a less faithful reflection of the external reality.

1924| From March to June, he lives and works in the Rue Blomet studio, where artists and writers all meet up. He spends the summer and autumn in Montroig. He begins Carnaval de Arlequín.

1925| From January to July, he lives and works in Rue Blomet. Miró's first meeting with Breton. Miró signs a contract with Jacques Viot, who organizes the second Paris exhibition by Miró at Galerie Pierre (June). From July to October he stays in Montroig and works on dream paintings. In November he returns to Paris and takes part in the first exhibition of Surrealist painting at Galerie Pierre.

1926| In February, he travels to Paris and stays in a studio in Rue Tourlaque. Diaghilev commissions Miró and Max Ernst with the stage set and costumes for the ballet Romeo and Juliet. In April, Miró and Ernst work with the Ballets Russes on the project for Romeo and Juliet in Monte Carlo, where it is first performed on May 4th. On May 18th, the Surrealists interrupt the opening performance of Romeo and Juliet at the Sarah Bernhardt Theatre in Paris. Pierre Loeb succeeds Jacques Viot as Miró's art dealer. From August to December, he paints "imaginary landscapes" in Montroig. From November to January 1st 1927, he exhibits work for the first time in the United States at the "International Exhibition of Modern Art" by the Société Anonyme in New York. Probably in late December, Miró travels to Paris.

1927| Miró expresses a desire to "assassinate painting". From January to June, very probably, he lives and works in Rue Tourlaque, continuing to create "dream paintings". On May 12th, the Ballets Russes perform Romeo and Juliet at the Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona. In July, Miró goes to stay in Montroig.

1928| From February he stays in Paris. He creates his first "collage-paintings" entitled Danseuse espagnole. In April, he takes part in the "Exposition surréaliste" at Galerie Au Sacre du Printemps. In May, he exhibits work at Galerie Georges Bernheim & Cie, and travels to Belgium and Holland. 17th century Dutch paintings serve as a source of inspiration for the Dutch Interiors (Interiores holandeses) series, which he paints in Montroig between July and December. In June, he makes his first trip to Madrid, where he visits the Prado Museum. In December, he returns to Paris, where he meets Alexander Calder.

1929| From January to June, he stays in Rue Tourlaque in Paris, where he paints "imaginary portraits". In March, he takes part in the "Exposición de pinturas y esculturas de españoles residentes en París" at the Botanical Gardens in Madrid. In May, he attends the opening of the exhibition "Joan Miró" at Galerie Le Centaure in Brussels. In June, he travels to Barcelona. By June 17th, he has travelled to Palma, where Miró gets engaged to Pilar Juncosa. In the summer, he works in Montroig on a series of "papiers collés". On October 12th he marries Pilar Juncosa in Palma. From November, Miró and Pilar Juncosa stay in an apartment in Rue François-Mouthon in Paris, which also serves as a studio. They spend Christmas in Barcelona.

1930| At the request of Christian Zervos, Miró draws his first lithograph for the magazine Cahiers d'art. In early January, Miró returns with his wife Pilar to Paris (rue François-Mouthon). From January to February, he exhibits two works at the exhibition "Painting in Paris from American Collections" at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. In January, he tells Gasch that he temporarily intends to abandon painting and dedicate himself to other techniques like bas-reliefs or sculptures. In March, Galerie Pierre in Paris exhibits the Dutch Interiors and "Imaginary Portraits". From March to April, he takes part in the exhibition "La Peinture au défi" at Galerie Goemans in Paris. He meets Giacometti. By May 14th, Miró and his wife have returned to Barcelona, travelling on to Palma, where Miró begins a series of sketchbooks that will serve as a starting point for drawings using Conte pencil on Ingres paper. From June to September, he takes part in the "Summer Exhibition" at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. In June, Miró and his wife travel to Barcelona, where on July 17th their daughter María Dolores is born. From August to November, they stay in Montroig, where Miró works on a series of drawings on Ingres paper and on his first three-dimensional works, Constructions. From October to November, Miró's first solo exhibition in the USA is held at the Valentine Gallery in New York.

1931| From January to June, he stays in Paris. He experiences hard times, artistically and financially. In January and February, there is a solo exhibition of Miró's work at the Arts Club of Chicago. From April to May, he takes part in the exhibition "L'Art vivant en Europe" at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. On June 9th, he is in Barcelona. In July, he stays briefly in Palma. From mid or late July to late November, he stays in Montroig, where he starts work on paintings on Ingres paper and object-paintings. In December, in Paris, he prepares an exhibition for Galerie Pierre. He returns to Barcelona for Christmas.

1932| Joan Prats introduces Joan Miró to Josep Lluís Sert. Miró's precarious financial situation forces him to stay in Barcelona. He lives and works at the family home at number 4 Passatge del Crèdit. In January, Boris Kochno suggests that he creates a stage set for the ballet Jeux d'enfants. In February, he travels to Monte Carlo to design the backcloth, stage set, costumes and objects for Jeux d'enfants, which the Ballets Russes first perform on April 14th at the Théâtre de Monte Carlo and later in Paris. He spends the summer in Montroig, where he is visited by Calder, who gives a performance of Le Cirque. In November, Miró has his first solo exhibition at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. In December, there is a solo exhibition of his work at Galerie Pierre Colle in Paris. From December to January, he takes part in the exhibition "Neuere spanische Kunst" at Galerie Flechtheim in Berlin. At the end of the year, he takes part in the "Exposition de la confédération des artistes d'avant-garde Paris-Tokio", held in several cities in Japan.

1933| From January to April, he lives and works in Passatge del Crèdit, Barcelona. From January to February, he works on a series of 18 collages, the starting point for a set of oils on canvas painted between March and June. On May 16th, the opening performance of Jeux d'enfants takes place at the Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona. In June, he takes part in the "Exposition surréaliste" at Galerie Pierre Colle in Paris. In July, the book Enfances by Georges Hugnet is published, illustrated with etchings by Miró. Additionally, the Mayor Gallery in London opens an exhibition of paintings by Miró. From August to October, he stays in Montroig, where he works on collage-drawings and a series of murals for Pierre Loeb. From October to November, he stays in Paris and takes part in the exhibition "Les Surindépendants", together with the Surrealists. From October to November, there is a solo exhibition of his work at Galerie Georges Berhneim in Paris. In November, at the request of Tériade, he makes a drypoint engraving on the theme of Daphne and Chloe. In the late autumn, he must make a series of oil paintings for tapestries commissioned by Marie Cuttoli. In December, the ballet Jeux d'enfants is performed at St. James Theatre in New York. From December 1933 to January 1934, he exhibits work at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York.

1934| In January and February, probably, he stays in Barcelona where he continues painting on card for the tapestries. At the same time, he uses new techniques and supports, making numerous drawings and the occasional collage. From late February to mid March, he stays in Paris. In March, his work is exhibited at the Arts Club of Chicago. He comes to a financial agreement for Pierre Matisse to represent him as his art dealer. In May, a solo exhibition of his work is held at Galerie des Cahiers d'Art in Paris, and the magazine Cahiers d'art dedicates an issue to him, which serves as a catalogue. On May 14th, the San Francisco East-West Gallery opens an exhibition of his work. In July, he makes a brief visit to Palma and then travels to Montroig. In October and November, he makes a series of pastel drawings on paper, which he calls "savage paintings". Miró designs the front cover for the Christmas issue of the magazine D'Ací d'Allà, which specializes in contemporary art.

1935| From January to June, he stays in Barcelona. He works on paintings on card. From January to February, he exhibits work at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. In January, he takes part in the "International Kunststudstilling Kubisme-Surrealisme" at Den Frie Udstillings Bygning, Copenhagen. On April 5th, at the Teatro Barcelona of the same city, the opening performance of the ballet Arlequí is held with costumes designed by Miró. In May, he takes part in the "Exposición Surrealista" at the Ateneo in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Some time before June 18th, he travels to Paris. There Miró and Josep Lluís Sert visit Kandinsky. In July, the magazine Minotaure comes out with a cover designed by Miró. From July to October, probably, he works on paintings on copper or masonite in Montroig. From October to November, there is a solo exhibition of his work at Stanley Rose Gallery in Los Angeles. In November, he travels to Prague for the joint exhibition "Mezinárodní Výstava I" at Galerie Spolek výtvarných umelcu Mánes. On December 11th, he is in Barcelona.

1936| From January to June, he stays in Barcelona, continuing to make paintings on copper or masonite. From March to April, the New York Museum of Modern Art holds an exhibition entitled Cubism and Abstract Art", showing work by Miró. On May 21st, the "I Saló d'Artistes Decoradors" opens, the first edition of a design show. Miró collaborates with GATCPAC (Group of Catalan Architects for the Development of Contemporary Architecture), contributing an oil on fibro-cement (1935) to a design project for a room and terrace by Josep Lluís Sert, Josep Torres Clavé and Antoni Bonet. In May, a 1931 object is exhibited at the "Exposition surréaliste d'objets", held at Galerie Charles Ratton in Paris. In early June, he must go to Paris with his latest work. Also in June he travels to London for the "International Surrealist Exhibition" at New Burlington Galleries. From July 14th to late September, very probably, he stays in Montroig. On July 18th, the Spanish Civil War breaks out. By October 28th, he has moved to Paris with his latest work, staying there because of the war. Probably by December 16th, Pilar Juncosa and their daughter are reunited with him in Paris. From December to January, he takes part in the exhibition "Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism" at New York's Museum of Modern Art.

1937| In January and February, he stays at a hotel in Paris. From January to March, very probably, he uses a room at Galerie Pierre as a studio. He begins to paint Still Life with Old Shoe. In March, he moves to an apartment in Boulevard Auguste-Blanqui, Paris. He creates Aidez l'Espagne, a "pochoir" in support of Republican Spain. He attends classes at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière to practise sketching nudes. The Spanish Government asks for his collaboration in the decoration of the Spanish Pavilion at the Paris Universal Exposition in 1937, where he paints The Reaper in June and July. In August, Miró and his wife travel to Varengeville (Normandy). In early November, Miró continues working on his self-portrait. In December, a solo exhibition by Miró is held at Galerie Pierre in Paris.

1938| From January through to June or July, he lives and works in Boulevard Auguste-Blanqui in Paris. From January to February he takes part in the "Exposition internationale du surréalisme" at Galerie Beaux-Arts in Paris. In March, he works on his self-portrait and on drawings and gouaches. He continues to learn engraving techniques. From April to May, a solo exhibition of Miró's work is held at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. In May, the magazine XXe siècle publishes "Je rêve d'un gran atelier", an article that expresses his desire for a big studio. In May, a solo exhibition of his work is held in Mayor Gallery, London. He spends the summer in Varengeville-sur-Mer (Normandy), where he probably starts work on mural paintings at the Nelson's home. In September, he finishes a painting for Pierre Matisse's children. He must spend the last four months of the year in Paris. From November to December, a solo exhibition of his work is held at Galerie Pierre, Paris.

1939| From January to July, he stays in Paris. In its January-March edition, Verve publishes an article by Miró entitled "Carnaval d'Arlequin". In March an exhibition of Miró's work is held at Galerie Pierre in Paris. On April 1st, the Spanish Civil War ends and the Franco dictatorship begins. From April to May, he exhibits work at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. From April to June, he takes part in the joint exhibition "Twenty Selected Paintings by Twentieth Century French Moderns" at Valentine Gallery in New York. By August 25th, he has left Paris and rented a house called "Clos des Sansonettes" in Varengeville (Normandy), where he stays until late May 1940. In Varengeville, he makes two series of paintings, one with a raspberry background and another on burlap, and he takes up lithography again. On September 3rd, the Second World War begins.

1940| The Japanese writer Shuzo Takiguchi publishes the first monography on the subject of Miró in Tokyo. Miró stays in Varengeville until May. In January and February he takes part in the "Exposición Internacional del Surrealismo" at Galería de Arte Mexicano in Mexico City. By January 12th, he has already begun a series of 23 gouaches entitled Constellations. In March, Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York exhibits work from his early period. The war forces Miró and his wife and daughter to abandon France and return to Spain. By late July, he has settled in Palma, living with his wife's family. From September to December, he continues painting the Constellations series.

1941| He stays in Palma from January to June and continues painting the Constellations. In March, an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró: Paintings, Gouaches, Drawings" is held at Pierre Matisse Gallery. In July, Miró is in Montroig, where he finishes the Constellations. He writes notes on painting, sculpting and printmaking. By November 15th, he is in Palma. From November 18th to January 11th 1942, the first retrospective of his work is held at New York's Museum of Modern Art, organized by Sweeney.

1942| He stays in Palma until June. In July, he is in Barcelona on his way to Montroig. From October to November, he takes part in the exhibition "First Papers of Surrealism" in New York. On October 20th, Peggy Guggenheim inaugurates her gallery, Art of This Century (New York), with work from her personal collection, which features two works by Miró entitled Dutch Interior II and Femme assise II. By October 29th, he has moved to Passatge del Crèdit in Barcelona. In December a solo exhibition of his work is held at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York.

1943| He stays in Barcelona between January and June. From March to April, he takes part in the exhibition "War and the Artist" at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. From March to April, there is a solo exhibition of Miró's work at the Arts Club of Chicago. Miró paints and works on a series of lithographs. He plans to make ceramics with Josep Llorens Artigas and a sculpture in the summer during his stay in Montroig. From October to November, a solo exhibition of Miró's work is held at Galerie Jeanne Bucher in Paris.

1944| From January to June, he must stay in Barcelona. He makes ceramics in collaboration with Artigas. He finishes off the Barcelona Series. From May to June, a solo exhibition of his work is held at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. On May 27th, Miró's mother dies. During the summer, he stays in Montroig. He makes preliminary sketches for ceramics. In the autumn, he returns to Barcelona. From October to November, he participates with the Surrealist group at the Salon d'Automne in the Palais de Tokio, Paris.

1945| From January through to early July, very probably, he stays in Barcelona. From January to February, there is a solo exhibition of Miró's work at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York featuring the Constellations. This exhibition is the first testimonial of European contemporary art in New York after the isolation caused by the Second World War. In February, a solo exhibition of lithographs by Miró is held at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. From March to April, a solo exhibition of Miró's work is held at Galerie Vendôme in Paris. In May, Germany surrenders to the Allied forces. During the Second World War, Miró keeps a level head by concentrating on his work. He prepares an exhibition in Paris to show work produced during those tragic years: lithographs, ceramics, sculptures, drawings, watercolours, pastels and paintings of all formats. He spends the summer in Montroig, where in September he is visited by the Serts, Joaquim Gomis and Joan Prats. In December he makes a terracotta model for the first version of the bronze sculpture Oiseau [Oiseau solaire and Oiseau lunaire].

1946| He stays in Barcelona from January to late July. From January to March, he takes part in the exhibition "Four Spaniards: Dalí, Gris, Miró, Picasso" at the Institute of Modern Art in Boston. From April to November, he makes his first bronzes, Oiseau [Oiseau solaire and Oiseau lunaire]. In June, Tristan Tzara asks Miró to collaborate in the creation of a bibliophile's edition of the work Antitête. In July, Alexina Matisee (Pierre Matisse's wife) meets Miró in Barcelona to discuss a new contract. Miró spends the summer in Montroig. In October, Pierre Matisse suggests that Miró create a decorative mural for a hotel in Cincinnati during his stay in the USA.

1947| On February 8th, Miró sets off from Lisbon to New York, where he stays until October and makes the mural painting for the Terrace Plaza Hotel in Cincinnati. During this first trip to the USA, he uses Stanley William Hayter's studio, Atelier 17, to illustrate Antitête, among other projects. There he coincides with Jackson Pollock and Louise Bourgeois. Thanks to this trip to the USA, he meets Pierre Matisse, Sert, Calder, Sweeney, Tanguy, Thomas Bouchard, Edgard Varèse, Peggy Guggenheim and Clement Greenberg. In March, Swiss publisher Gérald Cramer suggests that Miró should illustrate the book by Paul Eluard À toute épreuve. Miró and Matisse travel to Cincinnati to see the location for the mural painting and on April 15th a contractual agreement is drafted that establishes the need for the submission of a preliminary sketch. From May to June, there is an exhibition of paintings and works on paper by Miró at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. From July 7th, Miró takes part in "Le Surréalisme en 1947: Exposition Internationale du surréalisme" at Galerie Maeght in Paris. In August, he must move to Sert's apartment, where he spends the rest of his stay in New York. In late October, he arrives back in Europe and spends Christmas in Mallorca.

1948| From January to early February he lives and works in Barcelona. In February Partisan Review publishes an interview where Miró explains his creative process. From February to March, he stays in Paris. From March to April, the Museum of Modern Art in New York exhibits the Cincinnati mural painting. From March to April, there is a solo exhibition of Miró's work at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. Between late September and early October, Miró goes to Paris, where he prepares his next exhibition at Galerie Maeght, and works on the illustration of the book by Tristan Tzara Parler seul. From November to December, the first solo exhibition of his work is held at Galerie Maeght in Paris. Aimé Maeght becomes Miró's dealer in France.

1949| He spends most of the year in Barcelona, but makes trips to Paris, Montroig and Palma. As well as painting, he makes prints, ceramics and sculptures. From April to May, an exhibition of his work is held at Galerie Blanche in Stockholm. From April to May, Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York holds an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró, 1923-1927". From April to May, an exhibition-tribute to Miró is held at Galerías Layetanas in Barcelona. From June 26th, he is in Paris, where he plans to work with Gérald Cramer and Paul Eluard on the illustration of À toute épreuve, whose dummy he finishes in October in Montroig. On November 11th, architect Walter Gropius asks Miró to make a decorative work for a dining hall at Harvard University's Graduate Center. On November 19th, Miró travels to Paris to work on the illustration of À toute épreuve. In December the exhibition "Joan Miró: Pastels, Gouaches, Drawings, Sculptures. 1933-1943" is held at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. In December he travels to Palma.

1950| From January to May, he stays in Barcelona. On February 22nd, Miró tells Sert that he has just sent Walter Gropius the maquette for the Harvard mural painting. On June 2nd, Galerie Maeght in Paris inaugurates an exhibition of recent work by Miró. Probably in the summer Miró moves to no. 9 carrer Folgaroles in Barcelona, although he keeps on his studio in Passatge del Crèdit. In August, he is in Montroig. In October, he begins the mural painting for Harvard. On October 18th, Edgard Varèse writes to Miró with regard to the music for a documentary by Thomas Bouchard Around and About Miró. In November, an exhibition of sculptures and prints by Miró is held at Galerie Blanche in Stockholm.

1951| On January 19th, in an interview with Georges Charbonnier, Miró expresses a desire to make his art accessible to the public and he identifies with anonymous and popular artistic expression. On January 26th he finishes the Peinture murale for Harvard, which is exhibited from March to May at Galerie Maeght in Paris. In March, Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York holds an exhibition entitled "Paintings and Sculpture, 1946-1950". In late March, Miró spends a few days in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, where he meets up with Picasso, Matisse and Jacques Prévert, among others. Miró stays in France until May. He returns to Spain in July and goes to Montroig. From October to November, the exhibition "Calder-Miró" is held at the Contemporary Arts Association in Houston. In October, he is in the Balearic Islands. From November to December, a solo exhibition of Miró's work is held at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York.

1952| In March, he travels to Paris, where he must have visited the first solo exhibition by Jackson Pollock in the French capital at Studio Paul Facchetti. On March 19th, a possible commission is suggested: a decoration for the Delegates Lounge of the United Nations Building in New York. From April to May, a solo exhibition of his work is held at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. In May, Miró travels to Paris. In June, he flies to New York to see the location of the decorative work for the UN. He visits Cincinnati and Cambridge and spends a few days with Sert on Long Island, working on the maquette for the United Nations mural. On June 10th, he returns to Barcelona. On November 11th the maquette for the United Nations mural is finished and Miró takes it with him to Paris.

1953| In February, Thomas Bouchard travels to Barcelona to continue the documentary Around and About Miró, which he started filming in New York in 1947. On June 19th, Galeria Maeght in Paris opens a solo exhibition of work by Miró. Some time before November 10th, Miró and his family spend a few days in Mallorca. In November, Miró suggests that Sert write an article about the origin of the United Nations project and their conversations regarding the mural. Very probably in response to this request, Sert writes the article "Joan Miró. A New Approach to Mural Painting". From November to December, a solo exhibition of Miró's work is held at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York.

1954| On January 10th 1954, the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum in Krefeld inaugurates an exhibition of Miró's work which travels to Stuttgart and Berlin. In February, the first firings of ceramics by Miró are made in Gallifa, in a stage in his work that lasts for two and a half years. In March, he is in Paris. On April 17th, he notifies Matisse of his intention to move to Palma. From June to October, he takes part in the 27th Venice Biennial, which awards him the Grand Prize for Engraving. Between September and October, after a trip to Palma to see the land, Sert draws the plans for Miró's studio.

1955| While Miró's new studio is being built in Mallorca and for a period of four years, Miró focuses on ceramics and printmaking. In April, the model of the studio by Sert is finished. In June, Miró is in Palma where his studio and house are being built. From July to September he takes part in "Documenta I" in Kassel. On October 18th, the UNESCO asks Miró to help decorate the organization's new headquarters in Paris. On December 26th, after meeting the UNESCO's architects, he plans to make a 15x3m mural.

1956| From January to May, he stays in Barcelona and makes trips to Gallifa to continue working on ceramics. On January 6th, the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels opens an exhibition of Miró's work which travels to Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and the Kunsthalle in Basel. In February he works on the illustration of the book À toute épreuve and prepares an exhibition of ceramics. On May 10th, Miró and Artigas conclude a period of two and a half years dedicated to ceramics in Gallifa. From June to August, Galerie Maeght in Paris holds the exhibition "Terres de Grand Feu", with ceramics by Miró and Artigas. In the autumn, he begins to prepare for the move from Barcelona to Palma. In September, Miró is in Palma. In November, the maquettes of the two ceramic murals by Miró for the UNESCO are finished, together with the studio by Sert. In December, Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York holds an exhibition entitled "Sculpture in Ceramic: Terres de Grand Feu".

1957| He lives and works in Palma but makes trips to Barcelona, Gallifa, Montroig and Paris. In order to enrich the creative process of the ceramic murals for the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, Miró begins a pilgrimage, visiting sources of inspiration. In March, he visits the Altamira caves. He also looks at Catalan Romanesque paintings and architecture by Gaudí, Güell Park. In April the Haus Lange Museum in Krefeld presents "Miró: Das graphische Werk", an exhibition that travels to Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Hannover and Hamburg. On September 24th he is in Montroig. On October 19th he is back in Palma, but he plans to visit Gallifa to work on the UNESCO murals.

1958| From April to June, Galerie Berggruen in Paris exhibits the book À toute épreuve, illustrated by Miró. By June 13th, the Wall of the Moon is in Paris. During the month of August, Miró must work in Saint-Paul-de-Vence with Sert on the project for the Maeght Foundation. In August he receives the Guggenheim Award for the UNESCO murals, whose inauguration takes place on November 3rd. In November, Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York holds an exhibition entitled "Peintures Sauvages, 1934 to 1953".

1959| After four years without painting, Miró takes it up again and creates paintings on canvas, card, burlap and wood. Between January and March, Galerie Berggruen in Paris exhibits the facsimile edition of the Constellations, together with some original gouaches that are then exhibited from March to April in Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. From March to May, there is a retrospective exhibition of Miró's work in the New York Museum of Modern Art. On April 21st, he travels to the United States for the third time. On May 18th, President Eisenhower presents Miró with the Guggenheim International Award at the White House. Subsequently, Miró travels to Boston and visits his mural painting in Harkness Commons, Cambridge. On seeing its bad state of conservation, he suggests that it is replaced with a ceramic one. From July to October he takes part in "Documenta II" in Kassel. By October 9th, Miró has bought 'Son Boter', on 18th century house close to his home, 'Son Abrines', in Mallorca which he converts into a studio.

1960| He creates numerous works on canvas, card and paper, using a direct, gestural style close to American Abstract Expressionism. Some paintings reflect on space or emptiness. On June 9th, Miró is made an honorary member of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. Miró finishes the ceramic mural for Harvard, which is very different from the mural painting it replaces.

1961| On January 30th the Harvard ceramic mural is exhibited at Sala Gaspar in Barcelona, in February at Galerie Maeght in Paris, and from March to April at the New York Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. From February to April, the exhibition "Alexander Calder, Joan Miró" is held at Perls Galleries in New York. On March 4th, Miró finishes the triptych Bleu I, II, III. On March 20th, he finishes a mural painting for Josep Lluís Sert's home in Cambridge, USA. On April 28th, Galerie Maeght in Paris inaugurates an exhibition of work by Miró and in June a second one. From October to November, a solo exhibition of work by Miró is held at Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. On November 17th, he travels to New York, where he attends a dinner offered by the School of Fine Arts and plans to visit Sert in Cambridge. Jacques Dupin publishes a monograph entitled Joan Miró.

1962| In May, he finishes Peinture murale jaune orange, Peinture murale vert and Peinture murale rouge. In the same month he writes to Dupin about his plans to set up an engraving workshop in Palma. From June to November, a retrospective of Miró's work is held at the Musée National d'Art Moderne in Paris. In July, he travels to Saint-Paul-de-Vence, where he plans the project for the Maeght Foundation with Sert. In September he spends some time in Montroig.

1963| From 1962 and throughout 1963, Miró works with Artigas on the ceramics for the Labyrinth of the Maeght Foundation in Saint-Paul-de-Vence. In about mid February, Miró travels to Saint-Paul to work in collaboration with Artigas. On June 13th, Galerie Maeght in Paris inaugurates an exhibition of monumental ceramics by Miró and Artigas. In August, the director of the Guggenheim Museum in New York commissions Miró with a ceramic mural in honour of Alicia Patterson Guggenheim. Miró spends September in Montroig. On October 26th, Sala Gaspar in Barcelona opens an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró 'Album 19'". After returning from Saint-Paul, on November 26th Miró explains his sculptural projects for the gardens of the Maeght Foundation to Sert and his impressions of the architecture. In November, Pierre Matisse Gallery holds an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró and Josep Llorens Artigas. Ceramics: Terres Nouvelles". On December 16th, the architects' studio Skidmore, Owings & Merrill suggests a project to Miró for a Chicago square.

1964| In January, he continues working with Artigas in Gallifa. In March, he mounts the sculptures of the Maeght Foundation. In April he works on a ceramic mural for the Handels Hochschule in Saint-Gall (Switzerland). From June to October, he participates in "Documenta III" in Kassel. On July 28th, the Maeght Foundation in Saint-Paul-de-Vence opens, in a building designed by Josep Lluís Sert with monumental sculptures made by Miró in the Labyrinth. Possibly he has an interview with Bruce J. Graham (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill) to talk about the Chicago project. From August to October, there is a retrospective exhibition of his work at the Tate Gallery in London. In parallel, the London Institute of Contemporary Arts holds an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró: Thirty Years of His Graphic Art". In September, Miró travels to London. By October he has made the maquette for the monumental sculpture for Chicago. In December three exhibitions of Miró's work are held in Barcelona at Sala Gaspar, Galería René Metras, and Belarte.

1965| He works on the Chicago project but plans to visit its location and that of the mural for the Guggenheim Museum. Some time prior to May 20th, architect Bruce Graham visits Miró in Palma de Mallorca and together they travel to Gallifa to see the Chicago maquettes. In June, Galerie Maeght inaugurates an exhibition "Miró: Cartons". In July, he makes paintings like Oiseau dans l'espace I, II or II, or repaints work by other artists. He spends August and September in Montroig, with trips to Gallifa to work on the Chicago project. From October to November Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York holds the exhibition "Joan Miró: Cartones". Possibly on October 23rd, he flies to New York. He travels to Chicago and probably meets the director of the Guggenheim to talk over projects related to the museum.

1966| He casts the first monumental bronzes, L'Oiseau Solaire, L'Oiseau Lunaire. From 1966, he makes numerous bronze sculptures. In February the project for the Chicago sculpture comes to nothing. He prepares an exhibition for the Guggenheim Museum. From April to May, the London gallery Marlborough Fine Art holds an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró". On July 14th, the Japanese writer Shuzo Takiguchi writes to Miró for the first time. Miró works on the ceramic mural for the Guggenheim Museum. From August to October, a retrospective of Miró's work is held at the Tokyo National Museum of Modern Art, travelling on to the Kyoto National Museum of Modern Art (October-November). To mark the occasion, on September 20th, Miró and his wife travel to Japan, where they meet Takiguchi.

1967| Numerous bronzes are cast by Parellada (Barcelona), T. Clementi, and Susse Fondeur in Paris. His first painted bronze sculptures. In April, he travels to Paris for the exhibition of his work "L'Oiseau solaire, l'oiseau lunaire, étincelles" at Galerie Maeght. In May, he travels to New York for the inauguration of the ceramic mural at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. With Artigas, he makes La Déesse de la Mer, a 2-metre ceramic, in order to submerge it in the Cathédrale de la Fourmigue, an underwater cave in Cap d'Antibes. He is awarded the Carnegie International Grand Prize for Painting. From November to December, Pierre Matisse Gallery holds the exhibition "L'Oiseau solaire, l'oiseau lunaire, étincelles".

1968| In February Miró travels to Gallifa to work on the mural for the Maeght Foundation. From March to June, he takes part in "Dada, Surrealism, and Their Heritage", an exhibition organized by the New York Museum of Modern Art, which travels to Los Angeles and Chicago. By May he has decided to offer Barcelona the monumental sculpture he created for Chicago. In June, he travels for the last time to the United States, where he is awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa by Harvard University. From July to September, a retrospective exhibition is held at the Maeght Foundation to commemorate Miró's 75th birthday. La Déesse de la Mer is submerged in the Cathédrale de la Fourmigue. Initial plans are made for the future Miró Foundation in Barcelona and its location in Montjuïc is considered. From November 1968 to January 1969, a retrospective of Miró's work is held in the former Hospital of Santa Creu in Barcelona.

1969| The number of bronze and painted bronze sculptures that Miró creates intensify. His prints also occupy an important place. From March to May, a retrospective "Joan Miró" is held at the Haus der Kunst in Munich. From May to July, he takes part in the exhibition "Spanish Artists: Gris, Picasso, Miró, Chillida, Tàpies" at Galerie Beyeler in Basel. In May, the exhibition "Miró otro" is held at the Barcelona Architects' Association on whose façade Miró paints an ephemeral work. In November, he travels for a second time to Japan for a commissioned work for the Gas Pavilion at the Osaka Universal Exposition (1970). As well as creating a ceramic mural entitled Innocent Laughter, Miró paints an ephemeral mural and he presents painted bronze sculptures and some "inhabited gourds". Toward the end of the year, Miró becomes interested in tapestries by Josep Royo and the two men decide to collaborate on the creation of a tapestry entitled Tapís de Tarragona.

1970| In March, in collaboration with Royo, Miró starts work on Tapís de Tarragona. This first tapestry, made jointly by Miró and Royo, is exhibited in September at Sala Gaspar in Barcelona. From March to May, the New York Museum of Modern Art holds the exhibition "Joan Miró: Fifty Recent Prints". On March 15th, the Osaka Universal Exposition opens. From May to June, Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York holds an exhibition entitled "Sculpture in Bronze and Ceramic, 1967-1969, Recent Etchings and Lithographs". In the spring, Sert finishes the draft project and model for the Joan Miró Foundation in Barcelona. In June, a solo exhibition of sculptures by Miró is held at Galeria Maeght. An illustrated book is published entitled Proverbes à la main, the result of a collaborative initiative between Miró and Takiguchi. In September, a ceramic mural for Barcelona Airport is inaugurated. On October 6th, an exhibition of prints and gouaches by Miró opens at Sala Pelaires. From December to January 1971, a solo exhibition of Miró's work is held at Galleria Arte Borgogna in Milan.

1971| In February Miró donates the ceramic mural for the airport to the city of Barcelona. In July he works on the maquette of a tapestry for the World Trade Centre in New York. From September to October a solo exhibition of his work entitled "Homenatge a Joan Prats" is held at Sala Gaspar in Barcelona. In October he is commissioned with a monumental sculpture for Los Angeles County Museum of Art. In October, the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis inaugurates an exhibition entitled "Miró: Sculptures", which travels to the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Art Institute of Chicago. From October to November, Galerie Maeght in Paris holds an exhibition entitled "Miró: Peintures sur papier - Dessins". In November Le Lézard aux plumes d'or is presented at Galerie Berggruen in Paris.

1972| He finishes the ceramic mural for the Kunsthaus in Zurich. He creates another ceramic mural for the Cinémathèque, in the Palais de Chaillot, Paris. From February to March an exhibition entitled "Miró Bronzes" is held at the Hayward Gallery in London. From February to March, the exhibition "Miró Sculptures" is held at the Cleveland Museum of Art. In February, the exhibition "Homentge a Joan Prats" opens at Sala Pelaires in Palma. In February, an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró: Opere scelte dal 1924 al 1960" opens at Artelevi in Milan. From March to April, Pierre Matisse Gallery holds an exhibition "Miró: Sobre Papel". On April 10th, Wichita State University suggests that Miró create a mosaic. From April to May the Art Institute in Chicago holds an exhibition "Miró Sculptures". From May to June, an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró: Sobreteixims i escultures" is held at Sala Gaspar in Barcelona. In August, the New York City Cultural Council suggests to Miró that a monumental sculpture be erected in New York (a project that did not materialize). From September to October a retrospective of Miró's work is held at Liljevalchs Konsthall in Stockholm. In October, the Guggenheim Museum in New York inaugurates an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró: Magnetic Fields".

1973| In January the maquette for the monumental sculpture for Los Angeles County Museum is finished. Miró visits an exhibition by the poet Rafael Alberti in Rome. In March, he paints on lacerated or perforated canvases. In April, the exhibition "Sobreteixims et sacs" is held at Galerie Maeght. From April to June, the Maeght Foundation holds an exhibition entitled "Sculptures de Miró, céramiques de Miró et Llorens Artigas". In May, an exhibition is held at Pierre Matisse Gallery entitled "Joan Miró: Paintings, Gouaches, Sobreteixims, Sculpture, Etchings". In May Barcelona celebrates Miró's 80th birthday. In the artist's presence, four exhibitions open at the following galleries: René Metras, Nova, Adrià, and Sala Gaspar. In June and July, an exhibition is held at Tel Aviv Museum entitled "Joan Miró: His Graphic Work". In July, Alberti sends him the text Maravillas con variaciones acrósticas en el jardín de Miró, with a view to working on a joint illustrated book. From October 1973 to January 1974, the exhibition "Miró in the Collection of The Museum of Modern Art" is held in New York. In October, Pierre Matisse Gallery opens an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró: Sobreteixims". In December, Miró makes 5 burnt canvases (Toiles brûlées).

1974| On February 9th, he finishes two triptychs, Feux d'artifice I-II-III and L'Espoir du condamné a mort I-II-III. In May, Sala Gaspar in Barcelona and the gallery 4 Gats in Palma both inaugurate exhibitions entitled "Obra gràfica. Sèrie Barcelona. 1972-73". Very probably in May, Miró travels to Paris, where he supervises the mounting of an exhibition of his work that opens on May 17th at the Grand Palais. The same day, an exhibition opens at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville in Paris entitled "Miró: L'Oeuvre graphique". In August, Miró attends the 10th anniversary of the Maeght Foundation in Saint-Paul-de-Vence.

1975| From April to May, Pierre Matisse Gallery holds the exhibition "Joan Miró: Paintings and Sculptures, 1969-1974". Between April and May, the presentation of two illustrated books, Càntic del Sol and Quatre colors aparien el món, takes place. On June 10th, the Joan Miró Foundation in Barcelona is unofficially inaugurated in a building designed by Josep Lluís Sert, with an exhibition entitled "Pintura, escultura i sobreteixims de Miró a la Fundació". From December to January 1976, Galería Maeght in Barcelona holds an exhibition entitled "Un camí compartit: Miró-Maeght".

1976| Miró makes a mosaic pavement for the Rambla in Barcelona. On March 28th, he finishes Personnages oiseaux, the maquette for the mosaic for Wichita State University, plus the maquette Femme for the tapestry for the National Gallery in Washington. From April to May, Pierre Matisse Gallery holds the exhibition "Miró: Sculpture". In June and July, an exhibition is held at Galerie Maeght entitled "Miró. Eaux-fortes et lithographies récentes de grand format". On June 18th, the Joan Miró Foundation officially opens with drawings by Miró. In June, the National Gallery in Washington commissions Miró with a tapestry to be woven by Royo, in accordance with a submitted maquette. In November, Pierre Matisse Gallery inaugurates an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró. Aquatints: Grands Formats, 1974-1975". In December, La Claca begin to create the characters for the play Mori el Merma, inspired by Ubu.

1977| In March, Miró collaborates with La Claca, painting the characters, stage sets and objects for the performance of the play Mori el Merma at Sant Esteve de Palautordera. From July to September, a solo exhibition of Miró's paintings, sculptures and prints is held at the Musée d'Art Moderne in Céret. In October, Royo finishes the tapestry for the National Gallery in Washington, which is exhibited at the Joan Miró Foundation. On December 20th, the mosaic mural for Wichita State University is finished.

1978| Miró finishes a ceramic mural for the I.B.M. building in Barcelona. In February, Roland Penrose and a team from the BBC begin to film a documentary about Miró. On March 7th, the opening performance of the play Mori el Merma is held at the Teatre Principal in Palma. On April 19th, Barcelona City Council awards Miró the Gold Medal of the City. On April 20th, Palma City Council awards Miró the Gold Medal of the City, coinciding with his 85th birthday. The Regional Government of Catalonia also awards him the first Gold Medal. On May 4th two exhibitions of Miró's work open in Madrid. The Museo Español de Arte Contemporáneo holds an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró: Pintura" and the exhibition rooms of the Directorate General for Artistic Heritage hold another entitled "Joan Miró: Obra gráfica". In June, Mori el Merma opens at the Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona. On July 28th, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden expresses an interest in the maquette for the sculpture Femme devant la foule, which Miró had originally designed for Los Angeles County Museum although the project never materialized. On September 4th, an exhibition of Miró's work opens at Sa Llotja in Palma, where King Juan Carlos awards Miró the Grand Cross of Isabella the Catholic. On September 20th, the Pompidou Centre in Paris opens an exhibition of drawings by Miró. On October 19th, the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville in Paris opens an exhibition entitled "Miró: Cent Sculptures, 1962-1978". On November 13th, the monumental sculpture Couple d'amoureux is inaugurated in La Défense in Paris.

1979| Very probably in March, Miró is visited in Palma by architect Ieoh Ming Pei to discuss Femme echevelée, a coloured monumental sculpture for Houston (Texas). On March 27th, Palma City Council approves the Statutes for the 'Pilar i Joan Miró a Mallorca' Public Municipal Foundation. From April to May, an exhibition of drawings by Miró is held at the Hayward Gallery in London. Miró works on a sketch for a mural for the Madrid Palacio de Congresos y Exposiciones, on stain glass windows for an old church in Senlis, and on a monumental sculpture for the Parque del Mar in Palma. From May to July, Galerie Patrick Cramer in Geneva holds an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró: 60 Livres illustrés". From May to September, the exhibition "Joan Miró: Pittura, 1914-1978" is held in Orsanmichele (Florence). In June and July, Galería Maeght in Barcelona holds the exhibition "Homenatge a Gaudí. 100 gravats i 4 escultures". From July to September, the Maeght Foundation holds an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró: Peintures, sculptures, dessins, céramiques, 1956-1979". Miró travels to Saint-Paul to attend the inauguration of this last exhibition and that of the stain glass windows at the Maeght Foundation. On October 2nd, he is awarded the title Doctor Honoris Causa by Barcelona University. In October, the Palma gallery 4 Gats opens an exhibition of prints. In November, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden abandons the project for a monumental sculpture.

1980| From March to April, the Washington University of Art in San Luis holds the exhibition "Joan Miró: The Development of a Sign Language". On March 20th, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden inaugurates an exhibition entitled "Miró: Selected Paintings". From May to June, Pierre Matisse Gallery holds the exhibition "Miró: Painted Sculpture and Ceramics". On May 27th, Matisse informs Miró that the monumental sculpture for Houston will not be based on Femme échevelé but Personnage et Oiseau. From May to August, Mexico City's Museo de Arte Moderno holds an exhibition entitled "Miró: una realidad, un arte". In September, Chicago becomes interested once again in the project for a monumental sculpture by Miró. In the autumn, the director of the Venice Biennial shows a renewed interest the project for a ballet L'Oeil oiseau. In October, King Juan Carlos awards Miró the Gold Medal for Fine Arts. In November, in Palma, Miró shows Pierre Matisse and Ieoh Ming Pei the maquette of Personnage et oiseaux for Houston.

1981| On March 7th, Miró and Pilar Juncosa sign a deed donating the artist's workshops in Palma to the Fundació Pilar i Joan Miró a Mallorca. On April 20th, Miró's monumental sculpture Moon, Sun and One Star is inaugurated in Chicago. On September 25th, La Fenice Theatre in Venice holds the opening performance of the ballet L'Uccello Luce with a stage set and costumes by Miró. From October to December, Milan is the venue for the exhibition "Miró Milano: Pittura, scultura, ceramica, disegni, sobreteixims, grafica", held in seven different locations. On November 6th, two bronze sculptures are inaugurated in Palma.

1982| On April 20th, the monumental sculpture Personage and Birds is inaugurated in Houston. From April to June, the Houston Museum of Fine Arts holds the exhibition "Miró in America". In August, the monumental sculpture Dona i ocell is erected in Escorxador Park, Barcelona.

1983| From January to February, the New York Guggenheim Museum holds an exhibition entitled "An Homage to Joan Miró at Ninenty". From April to May, the exhibition "90è aniversari de Joan Miró. Obra gràfica 1929-1972l" is held at Sala Gaspar in Barcelona. In April, the New York Museum of Modern Art holds the exhibition "Joan Miró: A Ninetieth-Birthday Tribute". To mark his 90th birthday, Spain also pays tribute to Miró, with celebrations organized by Barcelona City Council, the Regional Government of Catalonia, Ministry of Culture and Joan Miró Foundation in Barcelona. On April 20th, the Joan Miró Foundation inaugurates an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró: Anys vint –Mutació de la realitat", which travels to the Museo Español de Arte Contemporáneo in Madrid. In May, Pierre Matisse Gallery opens an exhibition entitled "Joan Miró: Ninety Years: Sculpture, Gouaches, and Mixed Media". On December 25th, Miró dies at his Son Abrines home in Palma.